What is Orthodontics?
OrthodonticsIt is a branch of dentistry that deals with correcting the harmony of the lower and upper jaws, placing the teeth in the correct position in the jaws and correcting the bone profile. As crooked and misaligned teeth are more difficult to clean, there is a risk of early tooth loss due to periodontal (gum) disease and tooth decay. In addition, by causing more pressure on the jaw muscles; These can cause temporomandibular joint disorders and therefore headaches, back and shoulder pain. Crowded teeth also affect appearance. With orthodontic treatment, you will have a healthier mouth, a more effective appearance and longer permanent teeth in your mouth. A dentist working in this field is called an orthodontist. Becoming an orthodontist requires a doctorate in orthodontics after graduating from dental school.
How Is Orthodontic Treatment Done?
Treatments to move teeth, affect muscle growth or jaws can be fixed or mobile. These treatments are done with very light forces applied to the teeth or jaws. The treatment method is determined by the severity of your problem. Fixed applications consist of:
Bracket Attachment: The most common method of mounting brackets is with wires, clamps, and rings. Brackets are attached to the teeth and force is applied to the teeth by passing wires through the brackets. In this way, the teeth are moved gradually and their correct positioning is ensured. Treatment may take several months or years and adjustments are made once a month to ensure the desired healing of the teeth. Fasteners used today are lighter and contain less metal. It is made in different colors and transparent for adults to motivate children.
Special Fixed Appliances: These appliances are designed to prevent thumb sucking and are fixed to the tooth with tape. They are recommended as a last resort as they are not very comfortable while eating.
Fixed fillings: In cases where primary teeth are lost early, a placeholder is used to prevent other teeth from slipping into the space until the permanent tooth erupts. Removable devices are as follows.
Plaques (bracketless treatment): Many orthodontists prefer this as an alternative to fixed treatment for adults who do not have brackets and wires to align the teeth.
The aligners are usually clear and removed for feeding, brushing and flossing.
Portable placeholders: These perform the same function as fixed placeholders. It consists of an acrylic tray that fits on the jaw and fills the space between certain teeth with plastic or wires.
Appliances designed to reposition the chin: These appliances, called splints, are placed on the lower or upper jaw and help lock the chin in a better position. They are also used to correct (temporomandibular joint) diseases.
Lip and Cheek Pad: It is a device that pushes the teeth back and prevents the lips and cheeks from getting between the teeth. The lips and cheek muscles can exert force on the teeth, and braces reduce this force.
Jaw Extender: It is a device that allows you to expand the upper jaw. It is made of plastic material suitable for the palate. Thanks to the force applied by the screws, the palate bone moves and opens.
Movable Brackets: It is a passive device used to maintain the position of the teeth and prevent them from returning after treatment. It can also be used to get rid of thumb sucking habit with a small change.
Headgear: It is a device that is attached to the front of the head by a strap and a metal wire placed behind the nape. The cap slows the development of the upper jaw and holds the posterior teeth in place as the front teeth move backwards.
How is Orthodontic Treatment Diagnosed?
Only a dentist or orthodontist can determine the need for orthodontic treatment. Your need for and treatment for orthodontic treatment will be determined after an examination that includes a comprehensive medical and dental history, oral and dental examination, many diagnostic methods such as the creation of jaw models and special x-rays. You may need orthodontic treatment if:
Overbite, the upper incisors are well in front of the lower incisors. In the lower bite, the lower incisors are in front of the upper teeth or the upper teeth are ahead of the lower teeth. In crossbite, the upper and lower anterior teeth are closed to each other. In the open bite, the midline of the upper incisors and the midline of the lower incisors are not the same. Cavities are spaces between teeth that occur naturally or as a result of tooth extraction. Extrusion is not sufficient to align the teeth in the jaws.
Treatment takes 1.5-2 years on average. However, the duration varies according to the type of treatment, age and cooperation of the patient. It could be shorter or it could be longer.